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SLEZSKÝ SBORNÍK CXV / 2017, číslo 2
Forest, lakes, swamps and road. The development of settlement at the Northern frontiers of Silesia
The area between Lake Sławskie and Rudzieńskie, which was incorporated in the boundaries of Silesia at the end of the 13th century was still, at the beginning of the 16th century, covered by border wilderness with its numerous lakes, streams and swamps. Since at least the 13th century, communication routes have passed through it, of which the most important connected Silesia with Greater Poland. At the turn of the 12th and 13th century and in the first half of the 13th century, the area was subject to colonisation on the initiative of the rulers of Greater Poland. The early 13th century also saw dispersed settlement to the south of Lake Sławskie on the initiative of the Silesian rulers.
The next phase of colonisation is marked by the activity of a new holder of this land – Henry III of Głogów (died 1309), the initiator of the construction of castellany in Tarnów Jezierny (with colonisation functions) and grating Sława its town charter, around which a small settlement complex was formed in the first half of the 14th century. Further progress in clearing the wilderness was recorded later in public registers. At the end of the 14th century or at the beginning of the 15th century Chełmek, Lubięcin, Kolsko and Konotop were founded. In modern times (16th-19th century), numerous manors, estates next to inns, diminished settlement of millers, shepherds, glaziers and fishermen were ‘separated’ from the area of medieval villages and gave rise to today’s several hamlets. The route of the road gave also rise to granting Konotop city rights (1706). The shape of the town as well as the professional profile of the inhabitants were adjusted to the transit functions of the centre.
The power strategy of Bolek V. of Opole on the Moravian – Silesian border
This study focuses on the personality of Bolek V, the Duke of Opole, and his attempt to expand his own domain into the area of the Moravian-Silesian border. The core of the work is formed by the analysis of the power strategies of Bolek V, which he applied especially to the representatives of Opava Přemyslids. The inclusion of these strategies in the overall context of the power behaviour of the Duke of Opole is an equally important part of the work.
Establishment of the Czechoslovak Church in the Svinov district of Ostrava between 1923 and 1934 in the context of the development of the Roman Catholic parish
Establishment of the Czechoslovak Church in the Svinov district of Ostrava between 1923 and 1934 in the context of the development of the Roman Catholic parish. Changes taking place in the first quarter of the 20th century in the entire society, which culminated in the emergence of independent Czechoslovakia, brought several outcomes and novelties in the ecclesiastical area. It was, in addition to the departure from the Roman Catholic Church (Rome), the genesis of the new churches, established after the break-up of the Habsburg Empire. In addition to the Czechoslovak Evangelical Church (1918) and the Czech Orthodox Church (1918), or the Czech Orthodox Religious Community (1921), it was the Czechoslovak Church (1920) we focus on who followed the tradition of Hussitism and the Czech Reformation. The beginning of this proclaimed national church can be observed, apart from Prague, for example in the Ostrava region where, on January 15, 1920, one of the first religious communities in Czechoslovakia was founded in Radvanice (today part of the city of Ostrava). And besides that, Svinov, in which, as well as in the surrounding villages, open conflicts between the Roman Catholics and the members of the Czechoslovak Church took place, brings an interesting story of the way to founding a religious community. They ceased, to the satisfaction of both groups, after the church of Christ the King and John Huss Congregation had been built.
The security-political situation in the Hlučín region as seen by the security apparatus in the first half of the 1930s
The study documents and analyzes the structure and operation of the state police and gendarmerie in the Hlučín region at the time of the territorial reform of the Hlučín district in 1929 after the parliamentary elections in May 1935. Attention focuses on the state-security agenda of the security apparatus, taking into account the important social milestones of the given period. The text further describes various forms of pro-German agitation and the main features of the security-political situation in the region, with the aim of capturing the specifics and differences of the development in the Hlučín region compared to other border regions.
Privatunterricht – private teaching in German language in Hlučín region 1920–1938
From 1920 to 1938, private teaching in the German language (Privatunterricht) organized by the German minority in parallel with the official general education in the then Czechoslovak Republic took place in the territory of today‘s Hlučín region. This form of private teaching in individual municipalities was organized and financially sponsored by the German Cultural Association. The greatest interest in private teaching in German was evinced in the municipalities of Hlučín and Kravaře, where the groups of German-speaking children were the most numerous. In the archival materials stored primarily in the Land Archive in Opava, we can find data about the course of private lessons. As an example, the 1928/29 and 1929/30 school years were selected, when private teaching at the Hlučín region was provided in nineteen municipalities. Nowadays, only a few eyewitnesses who attended these private lessons and whose authentic testimonies can prove the historical facts live in Hlučín.
Social agenda of labor councils in Eastern Silesia in 1945–1948
The article is aimed to social agenda of labour councils in the region of eastern Silesia in years 1945–1948. During the last days of world war second were created labour councils at many factories at the territory of Protectorate Czech and Moravia. This counciles became the important instruments of social policy. The article describe various ways of labour council´s social agenda and his changes during four different periods that we can delimiter between years 1945 and 1948. Main following topics in the article are wages, living conditions and workers discipline.
The environment in the Ostrava region between 1948 and 1970 and the so-called socialist industrialization
Nina Pavelčíková – Petr Popelka
The study outlines the basic environmental issues within the Ostrava industrial area from 1948 to the beginning of normalization. The authors point to the fact that the coalfield experienced serious environmental problems from the 19th century. After the Communist coup in 1948, the existing problems severely deteriorated over a very short period of time in connection with the enforcement of the so-called steel concept, which unilaterally favoured massive strengthening of the heavy industry. During the 1950s and 1960s, the devastation of the landscape in the Ostrava-Karviná coalfield reached such extent that the coalfield began to literally collapse in its core functions and became an object of interest of the government bodies. The essential environmental problems first commenced the endeavour to implement at least provisional measures aimed at remediation, followed by more systematic measures based on the newly created national legislation. The efforts to introduce an economic reform in the second half of the 1960s attained partial success in limiting the extensive development of heavy industry in the Ostrava region, which could have a positive effect on the overall development of the healthy environment in the future. The attempt to complete the basic legislative process, which was to enforce the rules applicable to the biggest air and water polluters, seemed to be a kind of promise. Nevertheless, the period of the 1950s and 1960s appears to be rather a period of experiments, provisional solutions, organizational uncertainties and a search for new ways.
Bettina BRAUN – Katrin KELLER – Matthias Schnettger (edd.), Nur die Frau des Kaisers? Kaiserinnen in der Frühen Neuzeit. (Rostislav Smíšek)
Zdenko Maršálek, Česká, nebo československá armáda? Národnostní složení československých vojenských jednotek v zahraničí v letech 1939– 1945. (Lubomír Hlavienka)
František VAŠEK – Vladimír ČERNÝ – Jan BŘEČKA, Místa zkropená krví. Kounicovy studentské koleje v Brně v letech nacistické okupace 1940–1945. (Ondřej Kolář)
Ohlédnutí za XII. konferencí policejních historiků. (Ondřej Kolář)