The hoard of Prague groschen from Leśnica (Strzelecki County, Opolskie Voivodeship) was incidentally discovered in 1977. The deposite consists of 310 Prague groschen – 65 of Charles IV and 245 of Wenceslas IV. All coins were struck in Kutná Hora mint. This hoard does not appear in numismatic literature, we only know two short mentions – first regarding the circumstances of the discovery and the second from the inventory of numismatic findings from 1156–1500 from Poland. In both of them coins were correctly identified as Prague groschen, however, none of the mentions gave the exact amount of groschen of individual issuers. Only now, more than half a century after the discovery of this find, it was possible to carefully develop it and assign all coins to specific rulers and to new typologies created by Czech researchers (Pinta 2015 and Hána 2003). The oldest coins from this deposit were minted during the time of Charles IV, in the years 1350–1358. The youngest coins, which set the terminus post quem of the hoard from Leśnica, were minted during the reign of Wenceslas IV in the years 1400–1405.
Privilege of Baron Alexander Turzo of Bethlemfalva for Nobility of Psczyna (Pless) Dominion Regarding the Foundation of Provincial Court
The article focuses on circumstances of foundation of Provincial Court of Psczyna (Pless) Dominion. The founding act of the dominion owner, Baron Alexander Turzo of Bethlemfalva, actually legalised the existence of the court, in fact working since 1517. In 1521 the Baron complied with the request of the nobility of the dominion and issued a privilege, legalising the existence of the court since 1522. The court was supposed to be located at the chateau of Pszczyna. The brief founding document focused mainly on internal structure and remits of the court. Commented edition of the privilege is part of the article.
Oberamtsregierung in Opole and Brzeg – the Third Main Silesian Court, its Personnel and Operating Principles in 1744–1806
In the second half of 1770s, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was gradually recovering after the political failure and industrial damage related to the Bar Confederation (1768–1772) and annexing almost 1/3 of the territory by the neighbouring superpowers (First Partition of Poland – 1772). From 1775, also military forces were being reconstructed. Their main task was border protection and ensuring home stability. However, they were definitely not numerous enough to complete that task successfully as they counted only 16 500 soldiers at that time. Despite that fact, in the years 1778–1779, the crown military forces had to face the threat related to the war over the Bavarian succession. The article presents the actions undertaken by Polish military forces consisting in double protection of the Prussian army marching through the Polish territory, sealing the borders with the Prussian and Austrian states to stop the influx of deserters from the armies of these countries and fighting illegal conscription. Moreover, the publication presents information conveyed to the king Stanisław II Augustus by the leaders of Nunits stationing in Greater Poland and western Lesser Poland, concerning the mobilization and marches of Prussian and Austrian armies and military actions undertaken at that time.
Czech gymnastical movement in Czech Silesia: From its origin until its forced termination
Kristýna Folwarczná – Richard Moravec
Gymnastical movements personated a backbone of many nations, including people in Austro-Hungarian Empire. Czech were often inspirated by germanic physical syndicates and created own similar fellowships. Firstly was esthablished Sokol from which were deteached Workers´ Gymnastic Union (DTJ) and Orel. After the Great war czech comrades instituted Wokers´ Gymnastic Federation (FDTJ). Our research is deal with mentioned czech physical associations in the Czech lands with the orientation to the Opava and Těšín Silesia regions. We described an origins in question groupments, their activities and movement´s backgrounds. In the text were appointed an important events for every gymnastical associations. The certain part is concentrated by a compare of these fellowships. The submitted work refer how all of mentioned gymnastical movements helped to development and spread Czech national awareness in Opava and Těšín Silesia. Cultural, enlightenment, educational, gymnastical and later sport aspect gained this areas new impulses to dissemination from which this regions extract to nowadays. Membership in named associations show us national, political, religious, cultural and social stratification people living in Opava and Těšín Silesia.
The dissemination of progress and education in agriculture in the first half of the 20th century witnessed new impulses in connection with the development of new mass media. The beginning of radio broadcasting in Czechoslovakia is also related to the emergence of so-called professional radios. The study focuses on the activities of the branch of the Czechoslovak Agricultural Radio in Moravian Ostrava / Opava in the period from 1929 to 1938 and its broadcasting for Silesia and North Moravia. It clarifies its origins and the activities of personalities associated with its operation. At the same time, the regional aspects are not neglected, as well as the important firsts that characterized Ostrava‘s broadcasting. In this context, the gradual program changes of the broadcasting over time are outlined, as well as the end of the Ostrava / Opava branch.
After 1945, the ethnic composition of the Czech borderland changed radically and the place of the displaced Germans was replaced by a diverse mix of new settlers, including not only Czechs, but also Slovaks, Roma, Greeks, and re-emigrants from Volhynia, Romania and Yugoslavia. This highly heterogeneous group gradually became commonplace during the 1940s and 1950s, but a number of problems persisted. The article aims to clarify what the national composition of the district of Bruntál, formed in 1960 on the territory of the former districts of Bruntál, Krnov and Rýmařov, looked like, and what the attitude of the national committees towards individual minorities was. Attention is paid to four nationalities, which, in the defined region, belonged to the most numerous national minorities. They are, specifically, Slovaks, Germans, Roma and Greeks.
Brno, Moravia and Modern Architecture: Jubilee Balance
Modern architecture in Moravia is a phenomenon, on which the attention of researchers is focused since 1960s. In 2020, 50 years passed since the pioneer monograph Brněnská architektura 1918–1928 (Architecture of Brno 1918–1928) by Zdeněk Kudělka. During the half Century, research and knowledge of the topic came through interesting and complicated development. This paper attempts to analyse the changing narratives and interpretations of the issue in context of anniversaries of significant protagonists of Moravian modern architecture, falling upon 2020 and 2021.
Hrsg. Lukáš FASORA – Ewald HIEBL – Judit PÁL – Petr POPELKA, Elitenforschung in der Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Erfahrungen und metodisch-theoretische Inspirationen. (Ondřej Haničák)
Jaroslav MARIA, Já: vlastní životopis. (Kamil Rodan); Jan DVOŘÁK – Jaroslav FORMÁNEK – Adam HRADILEK, Čechoslováci v Gulagu III. (Příběhy krajanů popravených či vězněných v Sovětském svazu). (Kamil Rodan)
Edd. Zdenko MARŠÁLEK – Jiří NEMINÁŘ, Ve dvou uniformách: Nuceně mobilizovaní do Wehrmachtu a jejich účast v odboji. Okolnosti, souvislosti, marginalizace. (Ondřej Kolář)