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SLEZSKÝ SBORNÍK CXXI / 2023, číslo 1
Managed Loyalty? The Image of Schooling in Olomouc during the First World War through the Prism of School Boards
The following study aims to explain, how the school boards in Moravia, the supervisory bodies, reflected the course of the war in their official correspondence, and to what extent teachers and pupils were involved in the wartime events through the instructions of these supervisory bodies. These were mainly numerous circulars addressed to all German and Czech district school boards including the school board in Olomouc. In Moravia school boards were nationally separated since 1907 and this impacted the further development, including the time of the first Czechoslovak republic. The lack of food and other energy sources, clothes, shoes, etc. has also affected the running of schools and the social situation of pupils and their teachers during the war.
The school was to help maintain and further spread loyalty among the civilians in the hinterland. The schools were supposed to help promote war loans and to support, at least symbolically, the soldiers at the front, through small gifts such as scarves or balaclavas. The new regulations also concerned the content of teaching – especially textbooks, the lack of which – the approved ones – was putting teachers in difficulties.
The Impact of the Socio-Political Activity of Jan Kustos on the Inhabitants of Upper Silesia
The presented theme is dedicated to the role that Jan Kustos played in the history of Upper Silesia in the first half of the 20th century. Despite a relatively short life (1893–1932), the graduate of a University from Upper Silesia was certainly very active on the political stage of Upper Silesia. During his career, he was the editor and publisher of the „Głos Górnego Śląska” (The Voice of Upper Silesia). He was also socially and politically active (he was, among others, the leader of the Związek Górnoślązaków-Polaków [Association of Upper Silesian- Poles], the Związek Obrony Górnoślązaków [Association for the Defense of the Upper Silesians] and a council member of the city of Katowice). Due to the views he represented and the perception of his person by political opponents, the figure of the Kustos in contemporary social consciousness was identified with the independence movement in the Silesian Voivodeship. In this text, the author attempts to examine and determine the social policy views disseminated by Kustos and to evaluate their actual influence on the inhabitants of Upper Silesia during the period under discussion. Indirectly, an answer to the question of the position taken by Kustos’s supporters at the beginning of the nascent Second Republic on the political stage of the Silesian Voivodeship and the success of their activities should also be sought.
Becoming Part of Czechoslovakia, 100 Years since the Annexation of Hať and Píšť
In 1923, Czechoslovakia expanded its territory by two Upper Silesian municipalities. These were disputed villages that were crossed by the straight line established by the Versailles Peace Treaty, and, therefore, were not annexed at the same time during the occupation of the Hlučín region in February 1920. The study deals with the reasons that led to their annexation, and describes the international debates and the actual course of occupation.
The study is primarily based on diplomatic documents stored in the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and on the legacy of German activist Reinhold Weigel.
The Civil Air Defence and the Civil Defence Education in the Light of Printed Sources in the Years 1935–1939
The study deals with the issue of the Civil Air Defence and the Civil Defence Education and its reflection in the Light of Printed Sources in the Years 1935–1939 with the consideration of the history of everyday life and the regional history of the Moravian-Silesian Region, which is not yet adequately explored phenomenon in contemporary Czech historiography. The interwar period was connected to significant need of a readiness of the Czechoslovak populace against the enemy air raids. The Civil Air Defence, later incorporated in the Civil Defence Education, became an essential part of everyday life of the nation and a crucial subject which was frequently discussed in the print media like newspapers, magazines, monographs, handbooks and other specialised printed primary sources. The media became a pivotal factor in formation of public opinion in this crucial matter of defence of the state populace and the preservation of the national sovereignty as a whole that lasted until the inception of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, which ended the existence of the Civil Defence Education and the Civil Air Defence as its vital part.
Credit Action of the Czechoslovak Government in Favor of Czech Colonists in Ukraine
Credit action with exact name Credit action of Czechoslovak government in favour of Czech colonists in USSSR represented jointly with the Aid for starvating another form of aid to Czech compatriots in Soviet Union in 1920s. Czechoslovak government coming out of current changes in economic policy came up in year 1922 with the idea of long – run support for Czech compatriots in the form of loan for the purchase of agricultural machinery from Czechoslovak manufacturers. For that purpose government allocated in that year ammount of 15 million crowns. After well-managed organizational preparations, which took place in 1922/1923 until the beginning of 1924, a total of six transports with farm machinery and tools were delivered between 1924 and 1926. However, Czech farmers could not rejoice from the provided machines for a long time. The retreat from the New Economic Policy and the transition to a policy of collectivization of agriculture, including the liquidation of wealthy peasants, had a heavy impact on the Czech colonists. Hence the whole project ended in failure in 1928–1930, because Czech farmers as holders of farm machinery were labelled as kulaks, their machinery were confiscated under pretext of not fulfilling food levies and soviet authorities meanwhile arrested several functionaries of successful cooperatives, that distributed the ordered machines. The present study aims to capture the genesis, course and the unhappy end of this credit assistance with using of archival sources from the archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic and, to a lesser extent, from the National Archive in Prague and the Archive of the Masaryk Institute and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
Would-be arbitrator. Yugoslavia and the Polish-Czechoslovak Border Dispute of 1945–1947
The article presents the impact of the Polish-Czechoslovak conflict on the process of concluding allied agreements by Yugoslavia with both countries. The progress of both sides’ efforts to gain Belgrade’s support was reported. Yugoslav opinions on Zaolzie and Czechoslovak Western claims as well as possible mediation or participation of Josip Broz-Tito in the so-called “Slavic arbitration” were also discussed.
Jan LUŠTINEC – Petr NOSEK – Adam REJHA, Harrachové – vznešenost zavazuje (Stanislav Vaněk)
Petr KADLEC, Moravský advokát a politik Fritz Plachky (1836–1928). Mezi slávou a zatracením, rakušanstvím a němectvím (Petr Žídek)
Jakub ŠLOUF, Praha v červnu 1953. Dělnická revolta proti měnové reformě, vyjednávání v továrnách a strukturální proměny dělnické třídy (Dušan Janák)¨
Štefan ŠUTAJ – Jana ŠUTAJOVÁ, Výmena obyvateľstva medzi Československom a Maďarskom (v rokovaniach Československo-maďarskej zmiešanej komisie) (Oľga Šrajerová)